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Rabu, 20 Mei 2009

MANADO OCEAN DECLARATION


by fahry for ocean world

(ADOPTED ON 14 MAY 2009, IN MANADO)

World Ocean Conference
Manado, Indonesia, 11-14 May 2009
Ministerial/High Level Meeting

Page 1 of 5

We, the Ministers and the Heads of Delegations assembled at the World Ocean
Conference to discuss threats to the ocean, the effects of climate change on the
ocean, and the role of ocean in climate change, held in Manado, Indonesia, on
May 14, 2009,

RECALLING the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS), as the instrument that sets out the legal framework within which all
activities in the oceans and seas must be carried out, the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol,
the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the Convention on the
Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972,
and its 1996 Protocol,

RECOGNIZING that oceans and coasts provide valuable resources and
services to support human populations, particularly coastal communities that
depend heavily on them, and that the sustainable use of marine living resources
will enhance global food security and contribute towards poverty reduction for
present and future generations,
EXPRESSING CONCERN over the degradation of the marine environment, in
particular the loss of marine biodiversity, and marine ecosystems continuing to
be threatened by land-based and sea-based pollution, alien invasive species,
unsustainable use of marine and coastal resources, physical alteration, poor
land-use planning, and socio-economic pressures,

EQUALLY CONCERNED over marine ecosystems and living resources being
affected by sea level rise, increased water temperature, ocean acidification,
changing weather patterns, and other variations that may result from climate
change, and how these alterations may aggravate the existing pressures of
marine environmental degradation and increase risks to global food security,
economic prosperity, and the well-being of human populations,
NOTING the finding of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that climate change will especially affect
ecosystems, in particular mangroves, salt marshes, and low-lying coastal
systems; certain regions, including the Arctic, Africa, Small Islands, and Asian
and African megadeltas; and certain people, including the poor, young children,
and the elderly, and reports of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) that
identified key issues and consequences of climate change for fisheries,

MINDFUL that progressive acidification of ocean water and increasing
temperature will have negative impacts on marine biota, particularly shellWorld
Ocean Conference

Page 2 of 5

forming organisms, their dependent species, and coral reef structure and
function,

RECOGNIZING ALSO that sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the
oceans and melting of ice sheets and glaciers are threatening the very
existence of unprotected coastal communities situated at locations that are
marginally above present sea level, and are increasing the vulnerability and
isolation of small islands and low-lying coastal communities, due to their
dependence on the coastal environment, fisheries, and critical infrastructure,

ALSO MINDFUL of the potential impact of climate change on the attainment of
relevant internationally agreed sustainable development goals, including those
contained in the Millennium Development Goals, particularly for Least
Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States,

RECOGNIZING the crucial role of the ocean as a component of the global
climate system and in moderating its weather systems, and that the
oceanographic processes that result from this interaction will affect the rate of
climate change,

NOTING the recent increase in the intensity of hurricanes, and projections
regarding typhoons, tropical cyclones, and meteorological events worldwide and
resultant damages especially to the developing countries, leading to socioeconomic
challenges,

EMPHASIZING that greater participation and investment in coastal and ocean
observing systems and the wide availability of data from these systems would
allow for better assessment and monitoring of changes in coastal ecosystems
and the ocean environment, including those resulting from climate change and
climate variability, and that interdisciplinary research and monitoring systems
play a significant role in reducing uncertainties with regard to the effects of
climate change on the ocean, and supporting ecosystem-based management,

RECOGNIZING that healthy and productive coastal ecosystems, already
increasingly stressed by land-based and sea-based sources of pollution, coastal
development, and habitat destruction, have a growing role in mitigating the
effects of climate change on coastal communities and economies in the near
term,

RECOGNIZING that an integrated coastal and ocean management approach is
a key in promoting resilience, and thus fundamental to preparing for and
adapting to the effects of climate change on the ocean,

RECOGNIZING the importance of building coastal and ocean resilience in the
face of recent global crises pertaining to energy, food supplies, and financial
systems.

Page 3 of 5

We declare the following:

1. We will strive to achieve long-term conservation, management and
sustainable use of marine living resources and coastal habitats through
appropriate application of the precautionary and ecosystem approaches,
and to implement long-term strategies in meeting the internationally
agreed sustainable development goals, including those contained in the
United Nations Millennium Declaration that are related to the marine
environment, and in so doing will strengthen global partnerships for
development.

2. We stress the need for national strategies for sustainable management of
coastal and marine ecosystems, in particular mangrove, wetland, seagrass,
estuary and coral reef, as protective and productive buffer zones
that deliver valuable ecosystem goods and services that have significant
potential for addressing the adverse effects of climate change.

3. We will implement integrated coastal and ocean management, including
marine and coastal land use planning, to minimize and reduce the risk and
vulnerability of coastal communities and critical infrastructure.

4. We will strive to reduce pollution of ocean, coastal and land areas and to
promote sustainable management of fisheries in accordance with relevant
international agreements and codes of conduct in order to enhance the
health and thus the resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems.

5. We will cooperate in furthering marine scientific research and sustained
integrated ocean observation systems; promote education and public
awareness; work together for the improved understanding on the role of
oceans on climate change and vice-versa, and its effects on marine
ecosystems, marine biodiversity and coastal communities, especially in
developing countries and small island states; invite scientific
community/institutions to continue developing reliable scientific information
on the roles of coastal wetlands, mangrove, algae, sea-grass and coral
reef ecosystems in reducing the effects of climate change; share the
knowledge on available best practices on the dynamic relationship
between oceans and climate; continue promoting consideration of this
relationship in other ocean related fora; and to incorporate this knowledge
into advice on sustainable management practices.

6. We will promote gathering and exchange of information related to climate
change impacts on marine ecosystems, communities, fisheries and other
industries; emergency preparedness, monitoring, and forecasting climate
change and ocean variability; and improving public awareness of early
warning system capacity.

7. We emphasize the need to develop, consistent with international
commitments. comprehensive adaptation measures including within
national sustainable development strategies to address climate-related
impacts on oceans and coasts, and to develop environmentally sound
policies for integrated coastal and ocean management based on reliable

Page 4 of 5

scientific assessments and internationally agreed goals, particularly for
the most vulnerable communities that fully depend on marine resources for
their livelihood.

8. We resolve to promote, for the purposes of increasing coral atolls and
coastal communities resilience and preparation for the impacts of climate
change on oceans, the development of national adaptation measures that
include the effective use of all relevant information, climate-impact
projection scenarios, early warning systems, disaster risk reduction and
risk assessment, and vulnerability mapping to identify priorities for shortterm
and long-term actions.

9. We will strive to implement sustainable development strategies, including
through, inter-alia, appropriately applying a precautionary approach to
coastal and ocean management in addressing the adverse effects of
climate change on oceans, and in this regard, we will take adequate
measures to reduce sources of marine pollution, assure integrated
management, and rehabilitate coastal ecosystems such as estuaries,
coastal wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, sea-grass beds, and sand
dunes with particular attention to sedimentations as well.

10. We stress the need for financial resources and incentives to further assist
developing countries’ efforts in promoting diversified, environmentally
sustainable livelihood options for coastal communities most vulnerable to
climate change.

11. We also stress the need to promote affordable, environmentally sound,
and renewable ocean technologies and know-how, particularly in
developing countries, noting the relevant provisions in the UNFCCC.

12. We invite Parties to the UNFCCC to consider developing and submitting
climate change adaptation project proposals for coastal and ocean
management to the Adaptation Fund Board for consideration.

13. We will work, individually or collectively and in collaboration with relevant
regional and international organizations and regional seas programmes, to
enhance scientific monitoring activities in accordance with international law
related to the marine environment and to develop ways and means to
adapt to the effects of climate change on the ocean.

14. We resolve to continue, at regional and national levels, to exchange
lessons learned and best practices, and to enhance assessment of the
vulnerability of oceans and coasts to the effects of climate change in order
to facilitate the implementation of adaptation measures.

15. We resolve to further establish and effectively manage marine protected
areas, including representative resilient networks, in accordance with
international law, as reflected in UNCLOS, and on the basis of the best
available science, recognizing the importance of their contribution to
World Ocean Conference
Manado, Indonesia, 11-14 May 2009
Ministerial/High Level Meeting
Page 5 of 5
ecosystem goods and services, and to contribute to the effort to conserve
biodiversity, sustainable livelihoods and to adapt to climate change.

16. We will promote the Large Marine Ecosystem approach that enhances
institutional and international cooperation among countries sharing marine
ecosystems and their resources, due to its wide vision considering
pollution, fisheries, primary production, environmental monitoring, socioeconomic
development, and governance.

17. We thank the United Nations Secretary-General for providing an overview
of ongoing United Nations actions in key climate change-related areas,
which provides useful information on oceans and climate activities.

18. We encourage the efforts of the United Nations Secretary-General to
facilitate cooperation and coordination in the UN System to address
climate change, to emphasize the importance of ensuring that activities
relating to the ocean continue to be reflected in this process.

19. We recognize the importance of improving understanding of the impact of
climate change on the ocean and the need to consider ocean dimensions
to inform adaptation and mitigation strategies, as appropriate, and in this
regard we reiterate the contribution of the 2009 World Ocean Conference.

20. We welcome the efforts of the Coral Triangle Initiative as one of the means
of carrying forward the vision of the 2009 World Ocean Conference.

21. We reiterate the importance of achieving an effective outcome at the COP-
15 of the UNFCCC in Copenhagen 2009 and invite parties to consider how
the coastal and ocean dimension could be appropriately reflected in their
decision.

We express our recognition to the Government and people of the Republic of
Indonesia for their initiative to convene the World Ocean Conference held in
Manado and our deepest gratitude for their hospitality and generosity.

World Ocean Conference
Manado, Indonesia, 11-14 May 2009
Ministerial/High Level Meeting

1 komentar:

gaelby mengatakan...

wow...great.., i like this nice article...

(om didi ay.gaelby)

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